Notes whose lengths are equal to one-eighth the value of a whole note or half the value of a quarter note.
Sharps, flats and naturals that do not appear in a key signature.
Crescendo and Diminuendo
Indications instructing the player to play gradually louder (crescendo) or softer (diminuendo).
Extended Hand Positions
Hand positions that require stretching beyond a five finger scale; usually to play intervals that are 6ths or greater.