Sometimes called upbeats or pickup notes; a note or series of notes that precede and give stress to the first downbeat of a piece.
Crescendo and Diminuendo
Indications instructing the player to play gradually louder (crescendo) or softer (diminuendo).
Elementary Single Note Accompaniment
A type of accompaniment pattern where only one note is played at a time, usually within a single five finger scale and with simple rhythms.
Extended Hand Positions
Hand positions that require stretching beyond a five finger scale; usually to play intervals that are 6ths or greater.